1. Anashan (Fasting):
Complete abstinence from eating any food and/or drinking liquid. Sometimes one can drink only achit (previously boiled) water for a predetermined period of time, such as for a day or more. This spares our digestive energy to focus on spiritual uplift. This is known as Upavās.
2. Alpāhāra or Unodari (Eat less than Hunger):
Eating at least 10% less than one’s appetite at a given time
3. Ichhānirodha or Vritti-sankshepa (Limit on Foods and Possessions):
Limiting the number of food items while eating and limiting the possession of material things.
4. Rasatyāg (Elimination of Tasty Food):
Complete abstinence from eating or drinking juicy and tasty foods such as butter, milk, tea, sweets, fried food, snacks, spicy food, and juices. Also, one should eliminate junk food which has little or no nutrition value. In other words, there is no attachment to the taste of the food. We need to eat a minimum quantity of food to live a healthy life, but we do not need to eat food for taste and enjoyment.
5. Kāya-klesha (Voluntarily enduring sufferings):
One willfully subjects himself to the sufferings of a body even when one does not have to and remaining undisturbed while experiencing sufferings. This is the general term for all types of penances (Tapa). Activities include traveling bare foot in severe heat or cold weather and removal of hair by hand as practiced by Jain monks and nuns.
6. Sanlinatā (Giving up pleasures of five Senses):
One sits in a lonely place (in various postures) with all the senses and mind withdrawn inwardly and gives up the pleasures of the five senses and the mind.