Samavāya is the name of the group of five causes that are associated with every situation or event.
It gives the connection between action and causes. Without a cause, no action can take place.
These five causes have a deep connection with everything that takes place in the universe. These all are responsible for all events (positive or negative) in the universe. The five Samavāya (group of factors functioning simultaneously) are:
- Kāl (Time)
- Svabhāv (Nature of a Substance)
- Niyati (Fate)
- Nimitta and Prārabdha (External Circumstances, and/or Karma)
- Purushārtha (Self Effort or Free Will)
Some people give focus only to one of these causes and ignore the others. The theory of Anekāntavāda, the Jain philosophy of multiplicity of viewpoints, rejects this way of viewing matters from a single angle.
The Jain philosophy views and reveals the importance of each Samavāya from the Anekāntavāda and considers these five Samavāya as the causes for any action or reaction. Without these five, nothing can take place.